Women Life Span Is Longer Than MenDr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of World Health Organization, believes women live longer than men he wrote in WHO website: “The SDGs address inequality wherever it exists. The 2019 edition reports on trends over time and disaggregates data by WHO region, World Bank income group, and sex to identify key inequalities. The report reveals that in low-income countries, health is frequently compromised by diseases and ...more
In 2019, more than 141 million children will be born: 73 million boys and 68 million girls. Based on recent mortality risks the boys will live, on average, 69.8 years and the girls 74.2 years – a difference of 4.4 years. Life expectancy at age 60 years is also greater for women than men: 21.9 versus 19.0 years.
Between 2000 and 2016, global life expectancy at birth, for both sexes combined, increased by 5.5 years, from 66.5 to 72.0 years. The number of years lived in full health that is, healthy life expectancy also increased over that period, from 58.5 years in 2000 to 63.3 years in 2016. HALE is greater in women than men at birth (64.8 versus 62.0 years) and at age 60 years (16.8 versus 14.8 years). However, the number of equivalent years of full health lost through living in poor health from birth is also greater in women than in men (9.5 versus 7.8 years).
The ratio of the number of men alive to the number of women alive changes through the life-course
Globally, the sex ratio at birth has been in the range of 105– 110 males to every 100 females; however, mortality rates are higher in males, so the ratio changes as the population ages. Thus, in 2016, there were 100 men for every 100 women in the age group 50–54 years, and 95 men for every 100 women in the age group 60–64 years, with the sex ratio falling sharply thereafter. Because the incidence of different diseases varies with age, and women live longer than men, some diseases can be more common in women; for example, the lifetime risk for Alzheimer disease is greater in women than in men, partly because more women survive to ages at which the disease most commonly occurs, although in some locations women also appear to be more susceptible to Alzheimer disease.
Breast cancer (0.30 years), maternal conditions (0.23) and cervical cancer (0.15) are the causes of death that most reduce female rather than male global life expectancy.
Some of the differences in mortality rates and life expectancy are due to biological sex differences between females and males. For example, X-linked immune regulators may enhance immune responses in female children, resulting in reduced mortality among girls aged under 5 years. Others are linked to gender norms and inequalities; that is, the socially constructed roles, norms, behaviours, activities and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men, women, boys and girls. For example, child marriage increases the risks related to early pregnancy among girls, whereas higher rates of male employment in the transport industry expose men to higher risks of death on the roads. The exact contributions that sex and gender roles make to health status are often difficult to determine because they do not operate independently.
Several conditions contribute to differences in life expectancy between men and women
The reduced life expectancy of males compared with that of females is not due to a single or a small number of causes. Of the 40 leading causes of death, 33 contribute more to reduced life expectancy in males than in females. The main causes of death that contribute to a lower life expectancy in males than in females are ischaemic heart disease (0.84 years), road injuries (0.47), lung cancers (0.40), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.36), stroke (0.32), cirrhosis of the liver (0.27), tuberculosis (TB) (0.23), prostate cancer (0.22) and interpersonal violence (0.21).”